African cricket

【Overview】 African crickets, also known as African violets, belong to the family Gesneriaceae. It is a poetic flower that is famous in the world for its potted flowers. It is especially popular in Europe and America. After discovering Africans in France in 1893 in Africa, it was not until the early 20th century that it was found to be able to bloom in a suitable environment throughout the year and adapt to the air-conditioning environment. In the 1930s, African emu was very popular in the United States. In the 1940s, many inter-color and double-lobed varieties were selected. So far, the African badger has become the main potted flower in the United States. It is widely cultivated in the family and many new breeds are created by amateurs. In Europe, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and France all have mass production, and the Netherlands accounted for the seventh place in the production of potted flowers in 1995, with an output value of $21.4 million. African eels have become window-sill plants in Europe and the United States and are readily available in supermarkets.

The history of cultivation of African oak in our country is not long. Since the 1980s, we have introduced test tube plants from the United States and the Netherlands. At present, only a few Sino-foreign joint venture horticultural companies have only small-batch production, and cultivation is not yet widespread, but the development prospects are still very good.

Morphological characteristics and species: African oak is a perennial herb. Stemless, whole plant coats. Leaves ovate, stout stout meaty. Spend 1 or several flowers together, lavender. In recent years, there are many varieties of cultivars, such as large flowers, single petals, semi-double petals, double petals, and variegated leaves. The colors are purple, white, blue, pink, and two-color. Common cultivars include SnowPrince, white flowers, PinkMiracle, pink flowers, red roses on the edges, Ruffled Queen, purplish red flowers, and wrinkled edges; Pocone, Large flower species, flower diameter 5 cm, flowers pale purple; Diana (Diana), dark blue flowers. The half-heavy species is Fuchsia Red, which is purple in color. Corinne, white flower; flash, flower red; Blue Peak, flower blue, edge white; Double Delight, flower blue; Blue Caprice , flower light blue; shy bride (BlushingBride), flower pink. The Queen of the foliage (ShowQueen) is a blue flower with frilly folds. There are yellow and white markings on the leaves. Blue Boyinthe Snow is a lavender flower with a white stripe pattern.

Seen from the same species are white flowers and large flowers.

Biological characteristics: African baboons are native to tropical regions of eastern Africa. Hi warm. Wet and semi-shade environment. Summer is afraid of light and heat. The suitable temperature for production is 16 to 24°C, from April to October 18 to 24°C, and from October to April to 12 to 16°C. The temperature during the day does not exceed 30°C and the high temperature is detrimental to the growth of African salamanders. The temperature during the night in winter is not lower than 10°C, otherwise it is prone to frost damage. Relative humidity is 40% to 70% more suitable, the basin is too moist, it is easy to rot. The air is dry and the leaves lack luster. African pelicans need to be shaded in summer and their leaves are green and green. In winter, they are sunny enough to bloom. Rain and snow plus auxiliary lights are very beneficial to the growth and flowering of African plover.

[propagation method] commonly used sowing, cuttings and tissue culture breeding.

Seeding and breeding: Spring and autumn can be carried out. In the greenhouse cultivation, it is better to plant in the autumn of September to October. The germination rate is high and the seedlings grow well. In the spring of the year, there are more flowering trees. Sowing in February, flowering in August, but the growth potential is slightly poor, with little flowering. The seeds of the African eel are small, the potting soil should be fine, and should not be soiled after sowing. Germination temperature 18 ~ 24 °C, 15 to 20 days after sowing germination, 2 to 3 months transplant seedlings. Pay attention to potting soil should not be too wet. Usually 6-8 months from sowing to flowering.

Cutting propagation: The main use of leaf plugs. After flowering, choose vigorous and full of leaves, leave the petiole 2 cm long, cut it, dry it slightly, and insert it into the sand bed to maintain high air humidity. The room temperature is 18 to 24°C. After rooting for 3 weeks, it will take 2 to 3 months. Seedlings, moved into 6 cm pots. In the cutting process, vitamin ratio treatment is beneficial to the growth of young seedlings of A. sinensis roots. Treatment of petioles with 25 mg/L kinetin for 24 hours is beneficial to the formation of adventitious buds. It takes 4 to 6 months from cuttings to flowering. If the use of large litchi cuttings, the effect is also good, generally 6 to 7 months cuttings, flowering from October to November, such as September to October cuttings, the following year 3 to April flowering.

Tissue culture: In recent years, African baboons have become more common with tissue culture. The leaves, petioles, and epidermal tissues were used as explants. MS medium plus 1 mg/L 6-benzylamino adenine and 1 mg/L naphthylacetate. Adventitious shoots grew 4 weeks after inoculation, and rooted plantlets could be planted after 3 months. The plantlets were transplanted into the matrix of each half of the rot and the peat moss soil, and the survival rate was 100%. At present, the United States, the Netherlands, Israel and other countries have the production of test tube seedlings in Africa.

[Cultivation and Management] Cultivation of African oak, watering is very important, early spring and low temperature, watering should not be too much, otherwise the stems and leaves easily rot, affecting flowering. Summer heat, dry, should be more watering, and spray water to increase air humidity, otherwise pedicel sagging, flowering shortened. However, when the water is sprayed, excessive water splashes from the leaves can also cause the leaves to rot. In autumn and winter, when the temperature drops, watering should be appropriately reduced. Half-negative African plants are best served with 8 hours of light per day. If there is insufficient light in rain or snow, artificial light should be added. Such as lack of light, petiole elongation, delayed flowering, dark colors. Summer light is too strong and can cause burns or whitening of young leaves, requiring shading protection. It is required that the temperature be higher in the evening than in the daytime, 24°C in the evening, and 16°C in the daytime. The stems and leaves grow lushly and the flowers are large and numerous. During the growth process, fertile, loose rot leaves are the most ideal. Fertilizers are applied once every half-month. If the fertilizer is insufficient, the flowering is reduced and the flowers become smaller. After the flowers should be removed at any time to prevent residual flowers and mildew.

【Insect Pest Control】In conditions of high temperature and humidity, blight, powdery mildew, and leaf rot are easy to occur. It can be sprayed or poured into pots and soils with 1000 times of 10% antibacterial agent 401 acetic acid solution. Scale insects and red spiders often endanger African salamanders in the growing season and can be sprayed with 40% omethoate EC 1000.

【Post-natal treatment】African oak is a small potted ornamental plant, especially suitable for middle-aged and elderly people. Long flowering time, easy to move, easy to breed. Potted flowers, desks and window sill are very elegant and beautiful. They give relatives and friends good taste.

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