With the changes in the density of planting peaches and the development of facility cultivation, the technique of pruning and trimming has also undergone great changes. Long branch pruning has been used more and more. Compared with the traditional short branch pruning, the long branch pruning has the advantages of simple operation, good lighting in the crown, high fruit quality, time saving and labor saving, and can improve the quality of plant protection and facilitate tree renewal.
First, technical points
Long branch pruning is a short cut to the resulting branch, with only pruning, retracting, and gentle pruning techniques. The pruning point is: the pruning of the branches and extension branches, the young trees in front of the auxiliary tip to stay short. The adult tree depends on the growth of the tree. The Wangshu tree sparse some or all of the auxiliary shoots; the golden mean tree is compressed to the strong auxiliary tip; the weak tree stays longer before the auxiliary tip. Trim other branches and take them slowly or sparsely. The basic principle of pruning in winter is: the density of shoots on the backbone (including the large-scale branch) is about 15 centimeters to 20 centimeters, leaving 50% to 60% of the traditional short-cut pruning. For example, adult trees with a spacing of 5 to 6 meters and 3 to 4 meters of plant spacing retain between 200 to 250 long fruit branches per tree, and retain 30 to 50 cm long fruit branches. For species standing upright in the tree, the oblique branches and horizontal branches are mainly reserved, and some back branches can be properly reserved on the tree; for the species with opened tree branches, oblique branches are mainly reserved, and some horizontal branches can be appropriately reserved in the upper part of the tree. Keep a small amount of lower branches on the lower part. The culturing and renewal of the shoots were mainly carried out by the long shoots that resulted in sagging and basal sprouting. For peach trees that have been pruned using traditional short cuts, the method used is similar to the above principles when using long branch pruning techniques.
Second, the long branch pruning response characteristics
1. The vegetative growth of the tree, especially the growth of the upper branches and peripheral branches, is easy to maintain, and it is easy to maintain the balance of vegetative growth and reproductive growth and the balance of the tree.
2. The early leaf area formed rapidly, and the leaf area can be maintained at a high level throughout the growing season. Therefore, saplings can easily achieve early results and early high yields. Mature tree yield is high, stable yield is good, and resistance to night cream is strong. When the long branches are trimmed, the amount of flower buds is large, and flower buds with good quality in the middle of the branches are easily retained. Therefore, the ability to resist natural disasters such as late frost is strengthened.
3. The leaf screen of the tree is small jagged, the whole tree is mainly composed of small branches, and there are basically no large and medium-sized branch groups. The conditions for ventilation and light transmission are good, the fruit is colored early, the coloring is good, and the quality of the fruit is high.
4. Save on pruning labor. Winter cuts are 1 to 3 times less than traditional cuts. Adult trees may not be used or only once in summer.
Third, the application of long branch pruning should pay attention to the problem
1. The results of long branch pruning are early and the tree vigor is moderate. The planting density should not be too large. The row spacing should not be more than 46 meters. In order to rapidly expand the crown of a tree from 1 to 2 years old, all the fruits should be removed. It is not easy to leave fruit in the 2-year-old section of the backbone during plastic surgery.
2. Long-branched pruned flower buds are more abundant, and should be sparsely flowered and thinned to adjust the load. Generally medium and small fruit varieties, leave one fruit for every 25-30 cm, and leave 1-3 fruits for each long fruit branch. In addition, the upper part of the tree and the strong fruiting branches are more suitable for fruit retention; the lower part and the weaker fruiting branch are less.
3. Long branch pruning method has high yield, large leaf area and large water transpiration. It should be more time than traditional pruning method to increase the amount of fertilizer and water. Especially when entering the fruit period and the decline of tree vigor, it should strengthen the management of fertilizer and water.
4. In the long branch after the fruiting of the long branch, the second winter pruning must be promptly retracted, remove the front of the weak branches, leaving the base long fruit branches and then long release. For a result, the branch is generally not allowed to put it slowly for many years, otherwise it will cause the branches to be weak and dead, or the branch axis is too long, which will affect the light. It is also necessary to adjust the density by balancing the strength of the branches and branches and adjusting the tree potential.
5. Long-range pruning basically does not require short cuts, but it does not mean absolutely no short cuts. If the saplings extend their branches to stay short, the short cuts will be used. In the event of a lack of shoots and a large space, the use of long branches or short branches near strong branches will be shortened and long branches will be released afterwards to make up space and expand the area of â€‹â€‹results.
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