(1) The choice to promote cultivated land should be leeward and sunny, where there are no tall shades, where the soil should be loose and fertile, and watering convenient.
(B) to promote the cultivation of species 1, the greenhouse without heating the use of sunlight to increase room temperature. The greenhouse requires light transmission, heat preservation, and easy work. In the production, plastic films are used. The height of the back wall of the greenhouse is 1.6-1.7m, the height of the spine is 2.8-3.0m, the height of the center pillar is 2.2m, the height of the front pillar is 1.55m, width is 6-7m, (the width of the greenhouse increases by 1m, the height of the greenhouse to be increased by 20cm) can be 60 -70m. The three walls of the greenhouse (back wall, left and right walls) can be built with adobe, brick, and mud, and the wall thickness is 40-50cm. Because the outside temperature tends to be stable, and the grape has passed the natural dormancy period, as long as the grape is given suitable temperature and humidity, it can grow long. It can mature 45 days earlier than the open land, and the economic benefit is 2-3 times that of the open field. The greenhouse can be Add coverings such as straws and curtains on the shed film to enhance the night insulation effect. Because this type of low cost, high efficiency and rapid development.
2. Warming greenhouses Based on the solar greenhouses, heating systems such as helium, diesel engines, fire walls and other equipment are installed. Covers are added to the sheds, and the sheds are produced in early December. At this time, the grapes are still in a dormant period. Need to artificially cooperate with measures to break the dormancy, such as the use of 5 times the lime nitrogen clear liquid, 1:1 Meili clear liquid, 20% chlorinated ethanol chemical reagent to smear or spray on the dendrite has a certain degree of promoting . This kind of greenhouse has high economic benefits, but its cost is high and management is laborious. Therefore, relatively few applications are made in production.
3. Plastic greenhouses The sheds were directly shed on the rows of grapes grown on the open ground in early March. They were arched into bamboo skeletons and covered with plastic film (PVC is ideal without drip film) without covering. , degree of 7-8m, length according to the convenience of the work, the height depending on the original grape frame may be. Such greenhouses require light transmission, thermal insulation, and wind resistance. They can be matured 15-20 days ahead of the open space. The construction of the shed is simple, low-cost, and yields significant benefits. In the early spring, intercropping of vegetables is used to produce 667m2 of income of 2,000 yuan.
The above three forms of cultivation have advantages and disadvantages. From the standpoint of cultivation efficiency, the solar greenhouse is better than the plastic greenhouse, the fruit ripening period is earlier, and the fruit ripening period of the plastic greenhouse is between the open field and the greenhouse, filling the supply of fresh food. Blankness not only achieves the purpose of the annual supply of grapes, but also increases revenue.
(3) Varieties 1, Gennao Eurasian species are one of the earliest mature varieties that contribute to cultivation. They perform well in the shed, do not crack fruit, and are well colored. In plastic greenhouses, 20-25 days of mature time can be compared to exposed land, and 60 days can be matured in greenhouses with coverings.
2, Phoenix 51 Eurasian species, is a precocious fine varieties, in the greenhouse or greenhouse production performance is very good, basically no disease from production to harvest. In the plastic greenhouse, 25 days mature in advance compared to open ground (in mid-March, the shed is covered, and it is listed in mid-June).
3, Beijing Asia and Europe hybrids, quality in the upper, strong growth, high yield, early disease resistance.
4, Jing Xiu European and Asian species, strong disease resistance, high yield without cracking fruit, resistance to transport, is a good flavor of early maturing fresh food species.
5, Fujizawa Europe and America hybrids, strong disease resistance, resistance to storage and transportation, is an excellent medium-maturing varieties.
6, Kyoho European and American hybrids, robust plant growth, high yield, strong resistance to disease, in the greenhouse production must pay attention to control the output, or affect the coloring or postponed the maturity period (general production control in 1500-2000kg/667m2).
(IV) Management of grape promotion cultivation 1. The cultivation rack type greenhouses and greenhouses are not subject to restrictions, fences and scaffolds are available. The general production of the fence is planted in rows from the north to the south, with a row spacing of 2 m and a plant spacing of 0.5 to 1 m. (If not buried in winter, row spacing can be 1.5m)
2. Pruning greenhouses or plastic greenhouses in winter, due to the obstruction of plastic films, affect the incidence of light, so that the light intensity in the shed is less than 1/3 of the exposed land, and the air flow in the shed is small, which directly affects the synthesis of photosynthetic products in the leaves. Therefore, whether the production of greenhouses or greenhouses must ensure the transparency of the grape frame, otherwise the dense dendrite will cause the frame to close, the branches grow too long, and the internodes will affect the fruit setting. Therefore, the winter shear that promotes cultivation is lighter than the open ground. The pruning of the middle tip is mainly combined with the combination of long, medium and short tips for pruning. In order to ensure that there are 8-12 new shoots per square meter, the amount of remaining buds can be flexibly controlled. As a result, the thickness of the mother branch can be about 0.8 cm.
3, buckle shed and withdrawal time sheds are generally carried out after the grape's natural dormancy period, Hebei Province in late February or early March can be, when the outside temperature tends to be stable, buckle shed production is relatively safe, when exposed It is better to remove the shed when the temperature rises to 25-26Â°C.
4, temperature management Temperature management is the key to the production of greenhouses and greenhouses. Under the artificial control, the grape is protected from the low temperature and high temperature. In order to maintain the temperature of greenhouses and greenhouses without covering, cold ditches can be dug around the sheds, 40-50 cm wide and 50 cm deep, filled with heat-insulating filler such as weeds or sawdust to prevent the temperature in the shed. Spread out, the cold inward invasion, but also in the shed on the ground to cover the film, increasing the temperature during the day, but also to maintain soil moisture, adjust the temperature at night.
Warming and Germination: The natural period of dormancy of grapes is generally from late January to early February. There is a greenhouse covered with greenhouses, which can warm up and germinate at this stage. If there is no covering to delay the temperature and germination in about 20 days, the temperature should be controlled at 15-20Â°C, the night temperature should be 5-10Â°C, and the temperature can be increased to 20-25Â°C and 20Â°C at night in the third week. The ground temperature should be above 12Â°C. After about 15 to 20 days, the buds will germinate, and plastic greenhouses that cannot be warmed at night without covering will need to germinate after 30-40 days. The temperature during this period can not be too high, because the ground temperature rises slowly at this time, and the root activity is weak. If the temperature in the greenhouse is too high, the buds will germinate quickly, resulting in imbalances on the ground and under the ground and affecting the growth of buds and the differentiation of spikes. Humidity should be kept above 90%.
From budding to flowering: At this stage, shoots grow faster, but spike differentiation in winter buds continues. Therefore, the temperature and humidity in the shed should not be too high. It should be kept at 20-25Â°C during the day and the humidity should be kept at 60%. The new shoot is long.
Flowering period: The flowering period can be controlled at 25-28Â°C, and the relative humidity is small. Air drying is good for pollen maturation and spreading. It is beneficial to pollination and insemination. In this period, attention should be paid to the ventilation in the shed.
Young fruit enlargement to maturity: At this time the temperature should be maintained at 25-28 Â°C, the fruit enlargement to mature color are beneficial, general greenhouses at this time should be removed plastic film. Note: The temperature during the growth period cannot exceed 35Â°C.
(V) Management of fresh shoots Greenhouses or greenhouses are often exposed to higher temperatures and the lack of clean plastic film to affect light intensity, resulting in excessive growth of shoots and long internodes. Therefore, management of shoots is more stringent than exposed land.
1, to timely put wipe shoots, shoot tip when the new shoot grows to 40cm or so will be bound on the shelf, when the flower spit can be spit out to distinguish the results of the branches to be wiped without flowers and too strong too weak new shoots, so that the new shoots grow neatly .
Set tip: leaving branches should not be too dense, the general fence results from a new shoot about 20cm. Make sure that the rack ventilation and light transmission. Hold about 12 new shoots per square meter.
2, timely picking the heart and the auxiliary tip processing results shoots should be picked in the 7 days before flowering, in order to improve the fruit setting rate, the picking strength should be 4-6 leaves in the top of the ear (Jiaofeng on the set of fruit can be in 3-4 pieces Leaf topping)) After removing the tip of the axilla, the tip of the secondary tip was removed and the other two were all removed. The two tips were extended by 3-4 leaves of the secondary tip and the leaf was repeatedly picked.
3. Before the flowering, the tip of the axillary spike should be 1/3-1/4 of the spike, so that the spike is compact and the spike shape is regular.
4. Adjust the amount of fruit to remove the ear from the weak shoot. After the fruit set, only one ear is left for each new shoot. As a result, the strong result branch at the front of the mother vine can leave 2 earlets and ensure that each ear has about 10 functional leaves. , 8-10 new shoots per square meter of surface,
Prepare the branches to leave 10 leaves topping, the output is controlled at 1500-2000Kg/667m2.
(6) Soil, Fertilizer, and Water Management Greenhouses and greenhouses have a high soil utilization rate and require loose soil and fertility, creating a good soil condition for Portugal and Portugal. General greenhouse production less fertilizer, organic fertilizer should be the main, about 667m2 fertilization 3000Kg or so, can basically meet the grape's needs for a year's growth; urea use per plant control in 25-50g, can increase the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (each production Kg Kg Kg Grape consumes pure nitrogen 1.5Kg, phosphorus 3Kg, and potassium 1.5Kg). The decomposition of fertilizers is quicker in greenhouses or greenhouses due to the higher temperature and the fertilizer effect is exerted rapidly. To avoid shoot growth, nitrogen fertilizers are applied less in the greenhouse than in bare ground. The method of fertilization should be applied at a depth of 40-40 cm and a width of 40 cm deep at 30-40 cm from the neck. Applying on the other side of the following year will allow the root system to be updated year after year. Under the condition of applying base fertilizer, the plant growth will be normal and there will be no shortage of fertilizer. No additional fertilizer may be applied until the expansion of the young fruit begins. Phosphoric acid is sprayed continuously every 10 days. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-5 times (concentration 0.3%) can enhance the resistance of the plant, increase the sugar content of the fruit, promote the coloration and shoot ripening, and increase the application of urea 1-2 times in the germination of the grape, 25-50g per plant. Or spray 0.2% urea solution.
Water management: Irrigation should be combined with the various growth stages of the grape: In the germination and budding period, a large amount of water is required. Therefore, after the shed is irrigated, the air humidity requirement is 90% for germination. The mulch can be used to increase the ground temperature to maintain moisture and promote root growth. After germination, the temperature is lowered by air release, and watering is controlled to prevent shoots growing. Flowering period requires air drying to stop watering, which is conducive to mature pollen. After the fruit is set, it is necessary to irrigate the water during the fruit enlargement to help the fruit grow rapidly. Fruit ripening and fruit coloring should stop watering to improve berry quality. After falling leaves, pour winter water.
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