High-quality protein corn production technology

"Quality Protein Maize Production Technology" is one of the key technologies promoted by the Ministry of Agriculture during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period. Guan Yixin and Ling Biying, researchers at the Institute of Crop Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, collected a large number of research results on high-quality protein corn and compiled it into a systematic technique. Information was introduced by Mr. Ling Biying. Question: Teacher Ling, China is a big producer of corn. However, there are very few people who eat corn for three meals a day. What do we use to make corn? Answer: Corn is one of China's three major food crops, and it is also used as the main feed, economy, grain, and corn. Currently, feed corn accounts for 50%-60% of corn consumption, industrial processing accounts for 15-20%, and food accounts for about 10%. Q: It seems that corn is mainly used for feed, which is also an important part of consumption. In general, what is the development trend of corn consumption in China? A: In recent years, with the improvement of people's living standards, China's accession to the WTO has adjusted the structure of the agricultural industry. Some changes have taken place in corn consumption. The following are the main characteristics: First, the proportion of feed corn has increased year by year. With the development of animal husbandry in China, the proportion of feed corn has increased year by year. People often say that corn is the king of feed. Experts predict that by 2010, the proportion of feed corn will reach 70-80%. China's current per capita possession of corn is less than 100 kilograms, while Europe and the United States and other countries with developed agriculture and animal husbandry each account for about 500 kilograms of corn. We still have a large gap, and there is also ample room for development. Second, the corn industry has shown a good momentum of development, with scale, diversification, and serialization. Third, the development of edible corn is characteristic, commercial, and green. Q: Why is corn the king of feed? A: Among the energy feed crops commonly used in China, corn is a high-energy feed, which is good in palatability, easy to digest, and can be used to produce feed in any proportion. In addition, corn is cheap and easy to obtain. There is a reputation as "the king of feed." According to reports, the feed value of 100 kg of corn is equivalent to 135 kg of oats, 120 kg of sorghum or 150 kg of rice. It has the highest available energy in cereals, including 13.56 MJ/kg of metabolic energy (3.24 Mcal/kg). Higher metabolic energy than sorghum, wheat, and barley. Question: Now that there are more and more kinds of corn, we introduced high oil corn, silage corn and fresh corn respectively. What is high-quality protein corn? A: Some listeners may know that the content of lysine and tryptophan in corn protein is low, and these two kinds of amino acids are essential amino acids. The content of these two kinds of amino acids is an important indicator of the quality of the protein. If the content is high, the quality is good. On the contrary, the quality is poor. Therefore, the quality of corn protein is not good. If human beings rely on corn as a staple food for a long time, they will be prone to ecdysis if they do not use legumes. For monogastric animals to use corn as a feed, they must also incorporate soybean cake or lysine additives to meet the needs of livestock and poultry growth. In order to improve corn protein, many studies have been conducted at home and abroad. In the early 60s of the last century, a type of corn known as the Opaque-2 type was discovered in foreign countries. The content of lysine and tryptophan in the protein was twice as high as that of normal corn, and the nutritional quality of corn protein was significantly improved. Since then, the special maize type rich in lysine and tryptophan in protein components has been called QPM. Q: What are the major uses of high-quality protein corn? A: The content of lysine and tryptophan in the whole grain of high-quality protein corn is about 80% higher than that of normal corn. Preliminary studies have shown that this kind of corn is used in livestock and poultry feed to greatly improve animal performance, improve feed conversion efficiency, save food, and increase farmers' income. The application value and economic benefits of the development of high-quality protein corn are mainly manifested in the following three aspects: First, the high-quality protein maize kernel is rich in lysine, tryptophan and niacin, and the protein composition is reasonable. It is very beneficial to the human body as a nutritious food. In particular, corn-based foods can prevent the imbalance of amino acids in the human body. Niacin has an important role in preventing ecdysis. Second, as animal feed, high-quality protein corn has a high nutritional value. High-quality protein corn is directly used as feed for livestock and poultry. Because protein amino acids are relatively balanced, especially lysine and tryptophan which are constraining the digestibility of corn and restricting the growth of livestock and poultry, the weight gain of livestock and poultry is rapid and the slaughter rate is high. , provincial feed, reduce costs, high economic benefits. As a compound feed material, the amount of lysine, tryptophan, etc. added can be reduced, and feed costs can be reduced without reducing feed conversion rate. Third, improve the ecological environment. The use of high-quality protein corn as feed can help to balance the amino acid composition in animal diets, increase the digestibility of protein and amino acids in corn, and reduce the nitrogen content of livestock and poultry excreta, thus helping to reduce the development of livestock and poultry husbandry. And bring the environmental pollution. Q: There is a kind of corn called high-protein corn. Is high-protein corn and high-quality protein corn the same kind of corn? A: No, this is two kinds of corn. Q: What is high protein corn? What is the difference between it and high-quality protein corn? A: The protein content of corn kernels is generally about 10%, which is lower than that of wheat, but higher than that of rice. However, the zein contained in corn accounts for 50-60% of the crude protein (5%-10% for wheat and 30%-40% for rice), and the content of lysine and tryptophan in this protein is low. Poor quality. Using breeding methods to increase the protein content and improve the quality of corn kernels is an important issue for maize breeding. The so-called high protein corn refers to corn with a higher protein content in the grain. After years of selection by breeding workers, a high-protein corn line with a crude protein content of 19.5-25.2% was obtained, and a maize hybrid with a protein content of 15% has been selected. However, since the increased crude protein content is mainly poor quality gliadin, it has little practical significance. Therefore, high-protein corn is not necessarily high-quality corn. High-quality protein corn is a component that improves the protein in corn, reduces the content of prolamin, increases the content of limiting amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan in protein, and improves the utilization of protein by humans and animals. . Therefore, the crude protein content of high quality protein corn is not necessarily high, nor is it necessarily high protein corn. Judging from current development trends at home and abroad, improving the protein content of high-quality protein corn will increase the nutritional value of high-quality protein corn. Similarly, improving the protein quality of high-protein corn can also increase the nutritional value of high-protein corn. With the development of science and technology, high-protein corn and high-quality protein corn may also be integrated with each other to complement each other and cultivate high-quality, high-protein corn. Finally, it is worth pointing out that most studies have shown that the protein content in corn kernels is inversely proportional to the yield, that is, increasing the protein content is often at the expense of yields. The development of high protein corn should consider the relationship between yield and quality. Question: As mentioned above, high-quality protein corn is mainly used as feed. What kind of method is it used as feed for livestock and poultry? A: Currently, high-quality protein corn is mainly used as feed for livestock and poultry in two ways: one is for direct feeding; One is to do compound feed. Q: Which of these two methods is better? Answer: In undeveloped areas, if there is no compound feed, high-quality protein corn can be directly used as feed for pigs, chickens, geese, etc., particularly suitable for pigs, broilers, layer chickens, can improve animal production performance, improve feed conversion efficiency ,Save food. With the development of the feed industry, concentrated feeds and compound feeds are widely used. The amount of pure corn used as feed has been greatly reduced. Currently, high-quality protein corn is mainly used for compound feeds. The use of high-quality protein corn for compound feed has a much better feeding efficiency and effect than direct use in feed, because the nutrient requirements of livestock and poultry feed are proportionately diversified and the formulated feed can be maximized according to this nutritional requirement. To meet the needs of livestock and poultry animals, the highest breeding efficiency. Although the benefits of high-quality protein corn as direct feed are not as good as those of compound feed, the benefits of direct use of high-quality protein corn as feed are greatly improved compared with that of ordinary corn. Q: Can high-quality protein corn be used for feedstuffs to improve feed efficiency? Answer: As high-quality protein corn has significantly higher lysine and tryptophan content than normal corn, high-quality protein corn is used as the main raw material instead of ordinary corn production. The compound feed can reduce the amount of lysine, bean cake and fish meal added in the feed, and the direct benefit is to reduce the feed cost; at the same time, due to the more reasonable proportion of various amino acids in high-quality protein corn, the peptide chain structure is better than that of ordinary corn. Increase the utilization efficiency of livestock and poultry feed, can improve the production performance of livestock and poultry. At the same time, it will increase the digestibility of protein and amino acids in corn and reduce the nitrogen content of livestock and poultry excreta, which will help reduce the environmental pollution caused by the development of livestock and poultry husbandry. Q: What is the effect of high-quality protein corn on ruminants and monogastric animals? Answer: Monogastric animals cannot synthesize lysine and tryptophan on their own, and ruminants (bigastric animals) can synthesize these amino acids on their own. Therefore, the quality protein corn has a better feeding effect on monogastric animals than the double stomach animal. The remarkable effect of high-quality protein corn on monogastric animals has been confirmed by numerous studies and approved by farmers. The use of high-quality protein corn for livestock and poultry has significant economic benefits compared with ordinary corn, and can replace some of the bean cakes and additives, and reduce production costs. There is less research on ruminants at home and abroad. Some foreign researchers observed that yak-fed high-lysine corn increased daily gain and feed conversion ratio compared to normal corn. Q: Is the yield level of high-quality protein corn lower than that of normal corn? If the yield is lower than normal corn, is there still value in planting? A: China's high-quality protein corn varieties were selected and started around 1973. After more than 20 years of hard work, significant breakthroughs have been made. Newly-selected varieties such as Zhongdan 9409 have reached a level close to that of ordinary corn. Therefore, the correct selection of high-quality protein maize varieties suitable for the region and cultivation according to the correct cultivation measures can achieve yields equal to or higher than that of ordinary hybrid corn varieties. As the high-quality protein corn has greatly increased the content of lysine and tryptophan in the grain, increased the nutritional value of the corn protein and the digestibility of the animal, it has a positive effect on solving the food problems in the impoverished areas and developing the animal husbandry. Therefore, even if the yield level is comparable to that of ordinary corn, the cultivation of high-quality protein corn still has high application value and economic benefits. Q: How to choose suitable quality protein corn varieties and seeds? A: Compared with ordinary corn, high-quality protein corn hybrids have more regional characteristics. According to the ecological characteristics of the region, the selection of a moderate growth period is more important than the resistance to the main diseases in this area. For example, in the rainy areas, due to the susceptibility to grain rot of the silage hybrids, hybrids of hard or semi-rigid endosperm should be used to avoid or reduce ear rot and improve yield. In addition, the quality of seeds directly affects the quality of high-yield groups, so we must use high-quality seeds. The seed purity is required to be above 95%, the germination rate is above 95%, the germination potential is strong, the grain is full and uniform, and there are no broken grains and diseased grains. At the same time, seed coating should be carried out to prevent and control pests and diseases. Q: What are the major breeding units for China's high-quality protein corn? A: In 1972, the high-lying acid germplasm resources were introduced into China. With the advocacy and support of Mr. Li Jingxiong, the research of high-quality protein corn in China was carried out. The Institute of Crop Research of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing Agricultural University and the Institute of Genetics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have started the research of high-quality protein maize. Then, the breeding work in many provinces began in the "6th Five-Year Plan" and "7th Five-Year Plan" period. There are successively high lysine maize varieties such as Zhongdan 206, Nongda 107, Zhongnan No. 1, Gaoyu No. 1, Bengao 11, Longyou No. 1 and Danyu 301. During the “Eighth Five-Year” and “Nineth Five-Year Plan” period, the breeding units of various provinces in China have bred a batch of high-quality protein maize varieties with high lysine content and yields similar to or even higher than that of ordinary corn, such as Lu Yuan 13 and Zhong Dan. 9409, Ludan 209, Zhongdan 3710, Xinyu No. 10 and so on. In 2002, good news came from the southwest of China. Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences bred and displayed their first QPM hybrid, Saitama 2609, which performed well in the southwest region. Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences uses CIMMYT inbred lines and South African germplasm to breed QPM hybrids. Q: Is the quality protein corn variety the same as the normal corn variety in cultivation management? What is the main difference? A: High-quality protein corn, like ordinary corn, has no special requirements for natural conditions such as climate and soil, as long as it can grow high-quality protein corn in places where ordinary corn can be grown. According to the characteristics of high-quality protein corn, in order to increase yield and ensure quality, besides grasping general high-yielding cultivation techniques, it is also necessary to focus on the following points: First, isolate high quality protein corn from normal corn. If the O2 recessive single gene is transferred, the content of lysine in common corn pollen will become the same as that of normal corn. Therefore, the land that is a kind of high-quality protein corn should be separated from the normal corn. String powder, which is a key measure to ensure the quality of high-quality protein corn. In order to facilitate the isolation, it is best to contiguous planting, so even if the isolation conditions are slightly worse, the impact on the overall quality will not be too great. The isolation method can be spatial isolation, time isolation, or natural barrier isolation. Second, do a good job of seeding seedlings because the quality of protein corn seed is softer and the ability to unearth it is slightly worse than that of ordinary corn. Seeds should be carefully selected before sowing to remove broken kernels and small granules. In the spring sowing area, seed dressings with effective ingredients for controlling head smut should be used (see their instructions for use). The sowing date is more stringent than that of ordinary corn, and the live broadcast should generally be planted at a temperature of 12 degrees Celsius after the local average temperature stabilizes, a late spring sowing period, and suitable soil moisture. In dry areas in spring, bottom water must be filled and base fertilizer must be applied. It is required to finely prepare the soil before sowing, so that the soil in the cultivating layer is loose and the imaginary level is lower. The depth of sowing should not be too deep, and 3 to 5 cm is appropriate. The soil moisture should not be too large to ensure rapid emergence, high emergence rate, and neat emergence, which is conducive to cultivating strong seedlings. Q: How does the sowing date affect the yield and quality of high-quality protein corn, and how do we determine the appropriate sowing date? Answer: Higher yields can be obtained by appropriate sowing, and yields and quality can be reduced if sowed early or late. It is generally believed that the following factors should be considered in determining the sowing date: 1. Temperatures Spring maize production areas in China, such as the three northeastern provinces, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the northwestern region of China, determine an important factor in the sowing date is the temperature. It is generally believed that when the soil temperature of the soil seedbed or seed sowing depth is stable to 8-12°C, sowing can be carried out. There are two meanings here. One is "stable reaching", that is, at least 5 to 10 days have reached 8-12 °C; the other is that the time for the temperature to reach 8-12 °C is not necessarily the best sowing time. 2. Spring and summer drought and summer drought are important factors affecting the corn planting in China's spring maize and summer maize production areas. Drought often leads to corn sprouting and seedling irregularities and serious emergence of shoots and seeds. At the same time, too high soil moisture is not conducive to emergence. The ideal soil moisture for sowing is 70% to 75%. 3. The growth period and resistance of the variety. Growth Period. Late-maturing varieties have a longer growth period and should be sown early in the appropriate sowing period. For medium-early-maturing varieties, the suitable sowing period is longer, and the sowing date can be selected according to climate, soil, and comprehensive production situation. In two or more mature areas, the sowing date must also be considered before and after the arrangement to improve the comprehensive utilization efficiency of the land. Light temperature characteristics. There are great differences in the characteristics of temperature and light response between varieties, and the light-temperature sensitive varieties such as Dandan 13 have different planting growth periods in different regions. Therefore, the sowing date of the species under investigation cannot be completely based on the species introduction, and the focus should be on the results of local comparison tests. The disease resistance of the varieties and the main pests in the area are also an important factor. Appropriate adjustment of the sowing date can reduce the damage degree of the corn. For example, in the Jinzhong region and the Northeast Plain, adjusting the sowing date can greatly reduce the incidence of corn virus disease and head smut, and the sowing date is appropriate. Combined with the control of seed coating agents, the control effect can reach more than 85%. Q: How to conduct scientific seeding? A: As the saying goes: "Seven-point, three-in-one". With the increase of the level of production, the effect of sowing techniques on production has gradually increased. This is because with the increase of the yield level, the effect of the population uniformity on the yield increases, and the sowing technique is an important factor that affects the uniformity of the population. Sowing techniques mainly include fine soil preparation, appropriate sowing, sowing methods, sowing quality, seed quality, and seed treatment. The goal of scientific sowing is Miao Qi, Miao Lian, Miao Zhuang and the Festival. Q: There is a close relationship between planting density and yield and quality, right? Answer: Yes, reasonable density can increase the yield of high quality protein corn, but too high a density will reduce the protein content and oil content of the grain. The lysine content also tends to decrease at excessively high densities. Therefore, choosing a reasonable planting density has a great impact on both yield and quality. From the standpoint of high-quality, high-yield and high-efficiency targets for high-quality protein corn, the planting density should not be too large. Q: How do you determine the reasonable density? Answer: The planting density should be determined according to soil, fertilizer, water conditions, species characteristics, and field management level. I will talk about them separately: First, talk about the characteristics of varieties. Different varieties, there is a big difference in tightness. The difference in density between varieties is mainly caused by the difference in plant type and physiological resistance to weak light. The tightness of varieties is a comprehensive manifestation of the production performance of a variety. It can not be determined only based on one or two characteristics of the variety, such as the angle between the leaves. Testing and practice are the best methods to test the tightness of varieties. Strong density should be properly planted. Second, soil fertility and fertilization levels. Soil and fertilizer levels are closely related to reasonable density. High soil fertility, large and reasonable fertilization, suitable density. Third, soil moisture and irrigation conditions. Soil water supply capacity and irrigation conditions are another important factor affecting the appropriate density. In particular, within one month before and after tasselling, the soil moisture status has a great influence on the yield. If the drought is severe during this period, it can lead to the death of corn. When determining the planting density, local climatic conditions and irrigation conditions should be fully considered. In areas that are drought-prone without irrigation, planting density should be small. Fourth, geographical location. At different latitudes and altitudes, due to the differences in sunshine duration, intensity of sunlight, spectral composition, and daily and seasonal changes in temperature, the plant height and leaf area have changed, and the appropriate density has also changed accordingly. Q: How does fertilization affect the yield and quality of high-quality protein corn? How to scientifically determine the amount of fertilizer? Answer: Studies have shown that appropriate fertilizing materials such as nitrogen fertilizers and phosphate fertilizers can increase lysine content and protein content of high-quality protein corn while increasing yield. But be careful not to over-fertilize. Excessive fertilization will not only increase production, but will lead to a decline in yield and quality. Q: According to what factors determine the amount of fertilizer to determine? Answer: The amount of fertilization should be based on the target of production, soil fertility, the response of the varieties to the fertilizer and other factors to plan the type and amount of fertilization. To produce, with soil fat. The goal is to achieve the target based on the target yield, the amount of fertilizer needed per unit of production, the utilization rate of the fertilizer in the current season and the superimposed utilization rate, the abundance of soil fertility and nutrient elements, the adsorption and fixation characteristics of each element in the soil, and the nutrient content in the fertilizer. The type of fertilizer needed for production and the amount of fertilizer needed. For related technology, consult with local technology extension staff. To grow fertilizer. That is to say, there are genotype differences in the utilization of nitrogen in maize, and there are significant differences in nitrogen absorption and assimilation of different varieties. Therefore, it is advisable to determine the type and amount of fertilization based on the result of a fertilizer test as a main fertilizer or the fertilizer-water reaction characteristics in a variety introduction. With the potential fat. It is based on the growth and development status of corn fertilizer deployment. During the process of growth and development, the nutritional status of the plant was determined based on the diagnosis of plant morphology and tissue nutrients. Normally, the nutrient content of plants when the maximum yield reaches 90%-95% is considered as the critical value. When the nutrient content is lower than the critical value, the fertilizing material can increase the yield. The nutrient critical value is usually determined by the fertilizer test. Q: What are the methods of fertilization? How to fertilize scientifically and increase fertilizer efficiency? Answer: Scientific fertilization is an important guarantee for obtaining high yields and high quality. According to the law of sucking fertilizer and the characteristics of soil and fertilizer, the morphological changes of the nutrient after application of the nutrient to the soil and the transformation behavior, the appropriate application times, fertilization time, fertilizer ratio and fertilization methods were determined to maximize the utilization rate of fertilizer. First, apply basal fertilizer. Basal fertilizers, also known as base fertilizers, include all organic fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers, potash fertilizers, supplemental trace element fertilizers and some nitrogen fertilizers. Spring corn basal fertilizer can be applied to 15% to 30% of all nitrogen fertilizer; summer corn can usually use the aftereffect of fertilizer in the former crop, but when time permits, try to apply basal fertilizer. Basal fertilizer has methods such as spraying, spreading and applying acupuncture, so it is better to concentrate the application of acupuncture and acupoints, especially phosphate fertilizer and other elements that are easily fixed by soil. It is best not to use it when applying. In addition, various fertilizers are best mixed with organic fertilizers and applied. Second, apply proper amount of fertilizer. Fertilizers are placed near the seed and provide adequate nutrient supply in the stage of seed germination and sprout growth, which is beneficial to Qimiao and strong seedlings. Third, top-dressing. According to the requirements of fertility rules and fertility characteristics of maize, the stalks, tapping and attacking granules should be applied. Question: During what time is stalk manure, panicle attack and attacking grain fertilizer applied? Answer: The attack of stalked manure is to apply fertilizer at the jointing stage. The time of applying stalk manure fertilizer should take into account the application of base fertilizer and seed fertilizer. When the base fertilizer or seed fertilizer is sufficient, the use of stalk manure should not be premature. In some summer corn areas, basal fertilizer or seed fertilizer is seldom applied due to agricultural stress. Therefore, Miaofei should be applied early in the seedling stage, and fertilizer must be applied during the jointing stage. During the jointing period of corn to tasselling, dressing fertilizer is called attacking panicle fertilizer. Many tapping fertilizers use available nitrogen fertilizer, combined with cultivator or watering. The maximum fertilization effect of fertilization is in the spikelet differentiation stage. When 13 to 15 pieces of spring maize are unfolded, and 11 to 13 pieces of summer maize are unfolded, it is usually the spikelet differentiation period. The amount of spike fertilizer should not be too much, generally 10% -20% of total nitrogen is appropriate. Assaulting fertilizer: Fertilization is called attacking grain fertilizer 15 days before and after pumping. Nitrogen is the main attacking grain fertilizer. Do not exceed 10% of total nitrogen. Above, we introduced the attack on stalk manure, tapping manure, and attacking grain fertilizer. The following is followed: Fourth, the root fertilizer spray. If trace elements are found to be lacking in the seedling stage, dressings outside the roots can alleviate the lack of symptoms in a short period of time. Pay attention to the timing of fertilizer application, the type of fertilizer, and the concentration of spray fertilizer. Corn scientific fertilization should be adapted to local conditions and applied flexibly. In principle, the spring corn is heavy before and after, and the middle is light, ie, the base fertilizer and panicle fertilizer are re-applied, and the stalk fertilizer is lightly applied. Some spring corn areas generally use only base fertilizers and tapping fertilizers. Because of the large amount of panicle fertilizers, it is necessary to pay attention to the use of methods to increase fertilizer efficiency and prevent premature aging. Due to the short growing period of summer maize, part of the region uses a top-dressing fertilizer method. The concentrated use of fertilizers can easily lead to premature and premature aging. Maize plants are tall and difficult to fertilize in the middle and later stages. In order to increase fertilizer efficiency and reduce labor input and production costs, some developed countries are experimenting with the application of slow- and slow-release fertilizers for corn. This fertilizer can be used once to apply fertilizer according to the growth and development of corn. Regular, continuous supply of nutrients to meet the nutrient needs of the plant life. Q: Ms. Ling, above you mentioned the influence of soil moisture status before and after tasseling on corn production. What are the effects of drought on yield and quality throughout the corn growth period? A: Drought has a large impact on the yield and quality of high quality protein corn. Drought at sowing time delays the seed emergence time, which increases the chance of being infected by pests and diseases, resulting in lack of seedlings and ridges, weak seedlings, and severely affecting the subsequent growth; mid-fertility drought delays male silking and pollen production. Reduction, grouting is affected, protein accumulation is reduced, and production is seriously affected. Therefore, in order to ensure the quality and quality of high-quality protein corn, irrigation should be carried out in time for each growth period so as to ensure that the growth and development of high-quality protein corn is not affected. Q: What methods can be used to prevent or mitigate the occurrence of drought? A: Cultivated cultivator is a basic measure of security during corn growth. Its role lies in loose soil, weeding, improving the aeration of the soil, promoting the development of the root system of the maize and soil microbial activity, and can cut off the capillary and reduce the evaporation of water; at the same time, it is also beneficial to accumulate rainwater, reduce runoff, eliminate weeds and reduce pests. The spread of water, reduce water consumption, promote the development of the root system to the depth of the soil, improve the drought resistance of corn. In order to increase production efficiency and reduce production costs, it is recommended that chemical weeding and mechanical cultivators be used on the basis of fine soil preparation, and that weed herbicides can be used for timely weeding. In the northeastern spring corn area, the cultivator used in the seedling stage was deeply loosened and it worked well. Q: What are the main pests and diseases that affect the yield and quality of high quality protein corn? How to prevent and treat? A: China has a vast territory. Almost all parts of the country grow corn. There are many types of pests and diseases that harm corn. Prevention and control of corn pests and diseases should implement the principle of "prevention as the main, comprehensive prevention and control", early prevention and early treatment, and minimize the loss of pests and diseases. Seedlings are mainly controlled by underground pests, mainly crickets, crickets, and tigers. It can be controlled by seed dressing, poisonous soil, trapping and killing adults before sowing. We will not introduce more here. In addition to common common corn diseases, diseases such as head smut, dwarfism, smut and panicle rot have a great influence on the yield and quality of high-quality protein corn, so they should be used in the production of high-quality protein corn. Focus on the prevention of these diseases. Q: Please tell us about the prevention and treatment of these diseases. A: Yes. I introduce three more important diseases: 1. Maize smut The ear smut of corn is an important disease in China's spring corn production area. In the northeast, north and central China, south China, southwest, northwest mountainous areas generally occur. The symptoms are expressed on the ears and tassels. The main disease prevention and mitigation technologies are: Adjust the sowing date. Timely late sowing can increase the rate of seed emergence and seedling growth, and reduce the chance of pathogen infestation. Tests have shown that the sowing date adjustment rate of control of head smut can reach more than 90%, and its effect exceeds the control of medicine. Adjust soil moisture and apply fertilizer. Improve the water and nutrient conditions of seed germination and emergence, so that the seeds emerge early after sowing, reduce the time of seed in the land and the time of emergence to the three-leaf stage. In the dryland and high-cold areas, mulching is planted. Seed coating. 2. Rough-dwarf disease Maize diminutive disease is transmitted only through the planthoppers. In North China, maize emerged to the seventh leaf stage, and the susceptible period was from early May to mid-to-late June. As a result, the incidence of wheat field and spring corn field and weedy fields was heavy, and the incidence of live summer corn was light. . With insufficient water and fertilizer, less organic fertilizer is applied, resulting in weakened immunity of the corn and also conducive to disease occurrence. The main disease-prevention techniques are: the selection of disease-resistant varieties of contiguous planting, as far as possible sowing basically the same. Changing the farming system, serious wards reduce the area of ​​wheat intercropping corn. Before and after winter and spring sowing and corn sowing, the weeds in the fields were cleared to eliminate the sites of overwintering and breeding of Laodelphax striatellus, a virus-mediated mediator. Adjust the sowing date so that the seedlings of corn will avoid the flight of Smilax glabra. Rational fertilization and watering, increase organic fertilizer and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, promote robust growth of corn, shorten seedling time, reduce transmission opportunities, and enhance resistance to disease and disease. Before sowing, it is coated with seed coating agents such as carbofuran or seed dressing. The diseased plants were found to be removed in time. 3. Ear rot of ear rot disease occurs in every corn producing area. It is a disease caused by infection of various pathogens, and ear and grain can be damaged. The main prevention and control techniques are: implement crop rotation, remove and destroy diseased bodies. Suitable sowing, reasonable dense planting, fertilization, promote early maturity, pay attention to pest control, reduce the chance of wound infection. The maize is harvested in time after ripening, fully dried and stored in storage. Q: What should be paid attention to when harvesting high-quality protein corn? A: When harvesting quality protein corn, pay attention to the following issues: 1. Harvest timely. Studies have shown that when corn reaches a physiological maturity, yields are highest. When the corn milk disappears and the black layer appears at the end of the grain, it is physiologically mature. Generally, the moisture content is 25% to 30%. Premature or low harvest will reduce the yield. 2, remove the line. When the high-quality protein corn that is grown is not well isolated from other corn, the side-row plants may be affected by exotic pollen, which may degrade quality. In this case, harvesting can be done while harvesting to ensure quality. 3, the use of appropriate harvesting methods. High quality protein corn is mostly hard grain type, so harvesting can be either manual or mechanical. However, some of the original high lysine corn kernels are mostly soft, and mechanical harvesting often leads to excessive damage, which affects yield and quality. Therefore, attention should be paid when harvesting. 4, single income single storage. High-quality protein corn has high protein quality. To prevent mixing with other common corn and reduce quality, it should be harvested and harvested separately. Q: What should be paid attention to the storage of high-quality protein corn? A: Compared with ordinary corn, high-quality protein corn should pay attention to the following two issues in storage and transportation. 1, disease prevention, insects, rodents. High-quality protein corn is rich in lysine and tryptophan, has a unique flavor, so it is vulnerable to insects, mice damage, but also vulnerable to fungal attack. Therefore, high-quality protein corn should be promptly dried after harvesting, and the moisture should be reduced to below 14% as soon as possible, and then stored in a dry warehouse. If necessary, the protein corn can be smoked before it is put into storage to prevent pests in the warehouse. In northeastern China, due to the long winter and low temperatures, the moisture content of maize is very slow. When the temperature rises in the spring, if it does not cool in time, it often leads to rotten grains. 2, to prevent mixed. During drying, storage and transportation, care must be taken not to mix with other corn and reduce quality. Q: How can we grow quality protein corn to increase efficiency? A: How to reduce the production cost and increase the income of planting corn is the most concern of farmers' friends. At the current level of production, there is still scope for efficiency gains from corn planting. The first is the choice of variety. Each year in China, due to the misaligned choice of varieties, it leads to a significant reduction in production, which is sufficient to offset the increase in output brought by the new varieties. Therefore, the varieties to be planted must adapt to the local climate characteristics, resist major local diseases and pests, ensure normal maturity, and reduce the impact of natural disasters on production and quality. Second, choose high quality seeds. The quality of seeds directly affects the ability to achieve uniform seedlings, seedlings, and seedlings, and has a great impact on both yield and profitability. Third, reasonable sowing and reducing excessive sowing. Due to the idea of ​​having money to buy seeds and no money to buy seedlings, in order to ensure full seedlings, many farmers' friends have increased the sowing amount. In some places, the sowing amount per mu is as high as 10 kg. Excessive sowing on the one hand increases seed input costs, and on the other hand increases the labor costs of seedlings and seedlings. According to the requirements of 4500 seedlings per seedling, the weight of seeds is 300 g. If the seed germination rate is 95%, only 1.42 kg seeds will be needed. If we consider the impact of sowing quality, soil moisture content, and soil pests on seedling emergence, the seed germination rate is 85%, only 1.6 kg seed is needed. In high-quality seeds and better soil moisture, it is recommended to use precision seeding to reduce seed input. Where conditions permit, single-seed sowing can be tested. Single-seeding not only greatly reduces the amount of seeds used, but also reduces the number of working procedures for seedlings and seedlings, thus reducing labor input. Fourth, science uses chemical and mechanical weeding to reduce human weeding. After planting corn, cultivating and weeding is the main labor input process. Using scientific and chemical weed control can effectively control field weeds and reduce production costs. Under the premise of weed control and soil moisture, the number of cultivators should be reduced as much as possible. At the same time, cultivating and weeding can be combined with mid-term fertilization. Fifth, to reduce some of the traditional operations that are of little significance. In north and northeast China, ridge cultivation area is very large. The main role of ridge cultivation is to raise the temperature in early spring so as to sow as soon as possible. However, there are also many drawbacks in ridge cultivation. First of all, the early spring loss is serious. The ridge cultivation increases the soil volatile surface and accelerates the loss of soil water. In areas where the spring drought is more serious, the drought situation is aggravated, and in the next spring, the wind erosion is increased. The last ridge work increased production costs. It is suggested that in the areas with severe drought and long maize growth period, tests should be carried out as a flat crop. Sixth, the combination of no-tillage and deep-tillage cultivation reduces the number of soil cultivation. The method of combining deep-rooted cultivating every year or three years of deep-growing and loosening can reduce soil cultivation and reduce production costs on the premise of ensuring good soil performance. Seventh, the good seed and good law are matched, and reasonable density and reasonable sowing date are adopted for different varieties, so as to maximize the advantages of the varieties.第八,科学合理施肥,减少化肥用量及其施肥工序投入。科学施肥有两个内容,一是化肥用量,二是化肥使用方法。施用当地的专用肥或根据平衡施肥方法确定施肥量,是科学施肥的前提。目前大部分地区玉米的化肥用量已经比发达国家高,但是化肥的用量和产量的关系却很不协调,由于使用方法不合理,化肥的大部分效应没有发挥出来,造成了肥料的浪费,增加了生产成本。科学使用应考虑使用的次数,比例,使用的深度、位置等。当然化肥使用并不是次数越多越好,次数增加,劳动成本就会相应增加,一般两次施肥(底肥和拨节期追肥)较为经济,春玉米区三次施肥效果很好,但中后期施肥较为困难。第九,秸杆还田,增施有机肥,增肥地力。增加土壤肥力,可以提高化肥肥效、减少化肥投入,同时蓄水保墒,增强抵御干旱的能力。从短期看,增施有机肥增加了生产成本,但从长远来看,是降低生产成本、增加种植效益的极为有效的方法。问:以上我们学习了种植优质蛋白玉米的技术,那么请您给大家介绍一些目前推广的优良品种好吗?答:好的。 1991-1995年的“八五”期间我国育成五个QPM杂交种,“九五”期间我国科技工作者利用引进的Pool33,选育了一批农艺性状优良的自交系,并育成QPM杂交种。这些新品种已经在许多省、区进行试验和示范,并参加当地区试。这里主要介绍几个由中国农科院作物所、中国农业大学、沈阳农业大学、山东省农业科学院玉米研究所、新疆维吾尔自治区农业科学院粮食作物研究所、辽宁省铁岭市本溪市农科所、长春市农业科学院、黑龙江省农业科学院玉米研究中心等于种单位育出的品种: 问:中国农科院作物所选育的品种有那几个呢?答:我介绍三个。第一个:中单9409 由中国农科院作物所选育的优质蛋白玉米单交种,1996年河北省通过品种审定。属中熟品种,春播生育期为120天,夏播生育期100天。株高265厘米,穗位90厘米,穗粗5.5厘米,穗行数16-18行。千粒重350克,籽粒黄色,半硬质胚乳,胚乳硬质度为3.0级。全籽粒赖氨酸含量0.42%上下。高抗玉米大、小斑病,高抗青枯病和穗粒腐病。春播一般亩产800公斤,夏播650公斤。具有亩产1000-1200公斤生产潜力。适宜在吉林、辽宁、河北、山西、陕西、新疆、甘肃、内蒙、山东、河南、安徽、江苏、浙江、四川、云南、贵州、广西等地种植。在栽培上一般每亩种植密度在3800-4000株。第二个:中单3710 该品种为硬质胚乳高赖氨酸玉米杂交种,粮饲兼用,尤其适合作为鸡和猪饲料,可提高饲料利用率15-30%。全籽粒赖氦酸含量0.4%左右,比普通玉米增加80%左右。半硬质胚乳,胚乳硬质度3级。春播一般亩产800公斤,夏播650公斤。属于中熟品种,在北京春播115天,夏播97天。株高245厘米,穗位90厘米,穗长25厘米,穗粗5.5厘米,穗行数16-18行,千粒重35O克,籽粒黄色。适宜在河北、河南、辽宁、山西、陕西、贵州、云南、四川、浙江、安徽、江苏等地种植。密度以3500株左右为宜,要求水肥充足。第三个品种:中单206 1988年通过山西省农作物品种审定委员会认定推广。中熟品种。在北京春播,全生育期约110天。株高约250厘米,穗位约80厘米。茎秆坚硬,株型挺秀。果穗筒型,长约21厘米,穗行数16~18行。籽粒马齿型,黄色,软质胚乳,千粒重250克,出籽率85%。全粒含蛋白质8.96%,赖氨酸0.47%(中单2号为0.22%),脂肪5.28%。在1984~1985年全国高赖氨酸玉米杂交种区域试验中,平均亩产551.6千克,比普通玉米对照种中单2号低3.06%。种植密度以3500~4000株/亩。适于在河北、山东、山西、陕西、四川、湖南、浙江、宁夏、新疆等地种植。问:中国农业大学选育的是哪些品种呢?答:我介绍一个107/O2。中国农业大学(原北京农业大学)于1985年选育。 1989年通过全国区试,1991年山西省农作物品种审定委员会认定。春播生育期120~130天,夏播98~107天。苗期生长势旺,成熟脱水快。株高200~260厘米,穗位高120~130厘米。果穗筒型,长18.8~21.4厘米,粗4.4~4.8厘米,穗行数14~16行,行粒数40~44粒,穗轴紫色。籽粒桔黄色,马齿型,粉质,千粒重280~333克,出籽率86%。籽粒赖氨酸含量为0.45%。抗大、小斑病和穗粒腐病(接种鉴定0.5级)。生育后期轻微青枯,但对产量影响不大。 1986年在临汾市复播,亩产460千克,比对照中单2号增产3.2%。 1987年运城市安邑县复播,亩产377千克,比对照增产15.8%。 1989年在临漪复播,亩产434.2千克,比对照中单2号增产3.0%。适于山西省运城地区复播和中部地区春播。在雁北地区春播,必须采用地膜覆盖。问:沈阳农业大学选育的品种叫做高玉1号,对吧?答:对。高玉1号是沈阳农业大学1982年选育的优质蛋白玉米杂交种。 1990年经辽宁省农作物品种审定委员会审定命名。生育期120天。全株21片叶。幼苗芽鞘紫色,叶片正绿色,叶型平展,长势强。株高279厘米,穗位102厘米,株型中间型,韧性强。果穗长简型,长21.7厘米,穗行16行,着生直上,苞叶长,轴红色。粒黄色,马齿型,百粒重34.4克。出籽率85.5%。籽粒赖氨酸含量0.44%。高抗大斑病、穗粒腐病,中抗小斑病和丝黑穗病。丰产性好,大面积试种亩产在500千克以上。问:山东省农业科学院玉米研究所在优质蛋白玉米选育方面也做了多年的工作了,也有不少的好品种吧?答:是的。我准备介绍三个。第一个:鲁玉13号(原名鲁单203) 山东省农业科学院玉米研究所选育。 1993年通过山东省和四川省农作物品种审定委员会审定并命名,被列为农业部重点扩繁品种。中熟大穗型单交种。在济南春、夏播生育期分别约为110天和92天。株高约230厘米,穗位约84厘米。果穗长20.5厘米,粗5.0厘米,穗粒数800粒以上,穗轴红色。籽粒黄色,半硬质胚乳,千粒重约260克,出籽率88%。全粒蛋白质含量9.76%,赖氨酸含量0.40%。株型较紧凑,抗倒伏。抗玉米大、小斑病。高抗穗粒腐病和青枯病。一般亩产550~650千克,高水肥条件下可达850千克。 1990~1991年参加山东省区试,平均亩产538.9千克,比对照掖单2号增产5.4%。参加全国优质蛋白玉米区试,两年平均亩产556.5千克,比中单2号增产20.2%。适宜春播、麦田套种或抢茬直播。种植密度以3500株/亩为宜。适于山东、河北、河南、山西、陕西、四川等地种植。第二个:鲁单204 这是一个中晚熟大穗型优质蛋白玉米单交种。在济南春、夏播,全生育期分别约为124天和106天。叶片上倾。株高约242厘米,穗位约为90厘米。果穗长20.4厘米,粗5.0厘米,穗粒数756粒。籽粒黄色,马齿型,奥帕克一2型半硬质胚乳,千粒重270克。籽粒赖氨酸含量0.40%。根系发达,较抗倒伏。抗玉米大、小斑病、青枯病和穗粒腐病等。在山东省1989~1990两年品比试验中,平均亩产550.6千克,比对照掖单2号增产17.7%。在1991~1992年的全国优质蛋白玉米区试中,平均亩产537.6千克,比对照中单2号高19.22%,居参试品种第一位。宜春播或麦田套种。种植密度以3000~4000株/亩为宜。适于山东、河北、河南、吉林、新疆、四川等地推广种植。第三个:鲁单205 山东省农业科学院玉米研究所选育。中熟大穗型优质蛋白玉米单交种。叶片上冲。株高约240厘米,穗位约90厘米。果穗长19.2厘米,粗5.3厘米,穗行数16行,穗粒数约601粒。籽粒黄色,马齿型,奥帕克一2型半硬质胚乳。籽粒赖氨酸含量为0.42%,比中单2号高90.9%。根系发达,抗倒伏。高抗玉米大、小斑病、青枯病和穗粒腐病等。在山东省1989,1990两年品种试验中,平均亩产53975千克,比对照掖单2号增产15.45%。在1991~1992年的全国优质蛋白玉米杂交种区试中,平均亩产526.89千克,比对照中单2号增产11.97%。宜春播、麦田套种或抢茬直播。种植密度以3500~4000株/亩为宜。适于山东、河南、河北、吉林、四川、新疆等地推广种植。问:新疆维吾尔自治区农业科学院粮食作物研究所也有几个好品种。答:是的。有新玉7号、新玉10号。新玉7号是新疆维吾尔自治区农业科学院粮食作物研究所育成的高产、优质蛋白玉米杂交种。组合为“ZPL733X202-1”。 1993年由自治区品种审定委员会审定命名。新玉7号的选育方法于1998年6月获国家发明专利,专利号是ZL94102552-7。出苗到成熟126~128天。全株20片叶,属半紧凑型。穗位以上叶片上冲,叶片较宽,穗位以下叶片较平展。株高280厘米,穗位130厘米。花药呈紫色。花柱浅绿色。果穗圆筒型,平均穗长22~23厘米。籽粒黄色,半马齿型,千粒重280~300克,全籽粒赖氨酸含量为0.392%。抗病性、抗逆性、适应性强,在>10℃积温3000度日以上地区均可种植,亩产多在700~900千克。栽培要点:每亩定苗密度4300~4500株。不铺膜时行距60厘米,株距25厘米;铺膜时行距仍为60厘米,窄行(铺膜行)40厘米,株距30厘米;天山以北的北疆地区一般在6月25日结合施肥浇第一水,原则上不露旱象不浇第一水。新玉7号已在新疆累计推广100万亩以上。在甘肃、黑龙江亦表现高产、稳产。新玉10号是新疆维吾尔自治区农业科学院粮食作物研究所育成的早熟、高产、优质蛋白玉米杂交种。 1998年由自治区品种审定委员会审定命名。出苗到成熟,在北疆为102~103天,南疆复播为82~90天。全株叶数13~14片。株高180~230厘米,穗位60~80厘米。 Anthers purple.雌穗花柱绿色。果穗近筒型,平均穗长18.5厘米。籽粒黄色,半马齿型。早熟、高产,抗逆性和适应性强。 >10℃积温1900度日以上地区均可种植,尤其适于冷凉山区。亩产650千克左右,高产记录830千克。全籽粒赖氨酸含量0.417%。新玉10号除已在新疆大面积推广外,在甘肃、河北、内蒙古、吉林等地示范,表现良好。问:东三省的品种有那几个呢?答:我准备介绍的一共是5个。第一个:铁高1号是辽宁省铁岭市农业科学研究所于1985年组配的高赖氨酸玉米新杂交种。 1998年经辽宁省农作物品种审定委员会审定命名。生育期约126天。需活动积温2725.9度日。全株20~21片叶。幼苗芽鞘紫色,叶片绿色带紫晕,叶宽波曲明显,株高约283厘米,穗位高100厘米左右。果穗筒型,穗长19.9厘米,穗行数16~18行,行粒数40粒。籽粒黄白色,马齿型,百粒重37克,单穗粒重2I4克。出籽率86.2%。籽粒蛋白质含量8.15%,赖氨酸含量0.40%,含脂肪5.23%,淀粉含量72.83%。抗倒伏。抗大、小斑病和丝黑穗病,较抗穗粒腐病。 1994~1996年在省内高赖氨玉米区域试验中,平均亩产561.8千克,比对照增产10.5%;1995~1996年省内生产试验,平均亩产556.8千克,比对照种高玉3号增产7.7%。适于辽宁、吉林中南部地区种植。第二个:本高4号。本高4号是辽宁省本溪县农业科学研究所于1982年以78-3红O2为母本,以330曲O2为父本组配的优质蛋白玉米杂交种。 1998年经辽宁省农作物品种审定委员会审定命名,定为省内先进水平。生育期约116天。全株13~14片叶。幼苗芽鞘绿色,叶片绿色,长势强。株高约260厘米,穗位高85厘米左右,株型中间型,韧性强。雄穗分枝中等,花药黄色。雌穗花柱青色。果穗筒型,长约20厘米,行数16行,苞叶适中,轴白色。籽粒粉质,红色,马齿型,百粒重约30克。出籽率85%。籽粒蛋白质含量10.34%,赖氨酸含量0.5%。在全国区域试验和生产示范中,比对照种中单206增产5.7%,赖氨酸含量提高0.3%。东北区域试验中,与普通玉米对照种吉单101产量持平。 4月下旬至5月上旬播种。亩留苗3300株左右;亩施基肥20千克(氮、磷、钾),每亩再追施尿素25千克。制种时,父母本行比为1:6。先播父本,待父本钻锥后再播母本。父本密度3500株/亩,母本保苗4000株/亩。适于在辽宁省中熟区、吉林省和黑龙江省中晚熟地区种植。第三个是长单604号。是由长春市农业科学院于1992~1996年育成的优质蛋白玉米单交种。中晚熟种,出苗至成熟约128天。全株22片叶。幼苗叶鞘紫色。株高约270厘米,穗位100厘米。果穗长筒型,长21~24厘米,穗行数16~18行。籽粒黄色,半马齿型,千粒重约371克,籽粒赖氨酸含量0.40%。高抗玉米大斑病和茎腐病;轻感丝黑穗病。抗倒伏。籽粒可用作育肥猪和肉食鸡的优等饲料。 1994~1996年在吉林省区域试验中,平均公顷产量9428.6千克,比对照本玉9号增产14.4%。该品种适于在春播玉米中晚熟区种植。第四个:长单58号。长春市农业科学院于1987年以长727为母本,长658为父本杂交育成。 1994年通过吉林省农作物品种审定委员会审定。属中晚熟优质蛋白玉米单交种。出苗至成熟约128天。需≥10℃积温2780度日。全株21片叶。叶片半上举,活秆成熟。株高约265厘米,穗位90厘米。果穗长简型,长22~24厘米,穗行数16~18行。籽粒黄色,马齿型,千粒重310克,出籽率83.6%。籽粒赖氨酸含量0.41%。经鉴定,该品种抗玉米大斑病、茎腐病。抗倒伏,平均公顷产量9000~10000千克。 4月中下旬播种;每公顷保苗4.5万株;种肥用量是亩施磷酸二铵15千克,大喇叭口期结合中耕追施尿素20千克/亩或硝酸铵25千克/亩;有水浇条件的地方最好浇一次透水。制种时,父母本同期播种。适于吉林省中西部地区、山西省晋城地区、新疆石河子、内蒙赤峰等地区种植。第五个:龙09 黑龙江省农业科学院玉米研究中心育成的中早熟软质类型优质蛋白玉米杂交种。生育期110天左右。幼苗生长较健壮,茎叶繁茂。株高约240厘米,穗位高80厘米。果穗圆柱型,长21厘米,粗4.3厘米,穗行数16行,行粒数43粒。穗轴白色。长楔状马齿型粒,黄色,千粒重270克。抗玉米大斑病,耐青枯病、黑穗病和黑粉病。经1992~1993年两年试验,平均亩产559.7千克,比对照品种增产12.3%。适于在黑龙江省第二积温带下限和第三积温带种植。

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Edible Fungus

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