Hong Xianglong: The principle of ultrasonic extraction

<br> <br> principle of ultrasonic extraction ultrasonic extraction technique (UltrasoundExtraction, UE) is a new zui more sophisticated approach in recent years to apply herbal active ingredient extraction and separation.

Ultrasonic extraction method is the application of ultrasonic enhancement to extract the active components of plants, which is a physical crushing process. Ultrasound mainly produces unique mechanical vibration and cavitation effects on the medium. When the ultrasonic vibration vibrates, it can generate a strong energy, causing the medium particle to enter the vibration state with a large speed and acceleration, causing the medium structure to change, prompting the active ingredient to enter the solvent; at the same time, cavitation occurs in the liquid, that is, Under the action of considerable destructive stress, cavitation bubbles form in the liquid. Cavitation occurs when the intensity on the ultrasonic radiation surface reaches 0.3 W/cm 2 in water.

According to the change of cavitation bubbles, ultrasonic cavitation is divided into stable cavitation and transient cavitation. The two cavitation phenomena exist almost simultaneously in the liquid, and under certain conditions, stable cavitation can be converted into transient cavitation. Stable cavitation refers to the cavitation generated when the sound intensity is less than 10W/cm2, which is regular and moderate; transient cavitation refers to the cavitation generated when the sound intensity is greater than 10W/cm2, which is short and intense. The cavitation bubble rapidly rises and ruptures and ruptures, and the absorbed sound energy is released in a very short time and a very small space, forming a high temperature and high pressure environment, accompanied by a strong shock wave and micro-acoustic flow. Thereby destroying the cell wall structure, causing it to rupture in an instant, the active components in the plant cells are released, directly enter the solvent and thoroughly mixed, thereby increasing the rate of presentation.

In addition, many secondary effects of ultrasound such as thermal effects, emulsification, diffusion, crushing, chemical effects, biological effects, cohesion effects, etc. can also accelerate the diffusion and release of plant active ingredients in solvents, and promote the plant active ingredients to be fully mixed with the solvent. Conducive to extraction. If the glutinous rice liquid is treated with ultrasonic wave in both the leaching and precipitation stages, the rutin macromolecule can be polymerized into a large particle precipitate more quickly, and the precipitation is more complete, as long as 20~30min, which is condensed. The effect that ultrasonic waves have the effect of causing particles suspended in a gas or liquid to aggregate into larger particles and precipitate.

Ultrasound Introduction Ultrasonic wave is a sound wave with a frequency above 20KHz. It can't cause human hearing. It is a kind of mechanical vibration propagation process in the medium. It has the characteristics of bunching, orientation, reflection and transmission. It mainly produces two kinds in the medium. Formal vibrations are transverse waves and longitudinal waves. The former can only be produced in solids, while the latter can be produced in solids, liquids, and gases. As a form of physical energy, ultrasound is widely used in metal detection, underwater positioning, medical diagnosis and treatment, pharmacy, industry, chemical and chemical processes, environmental protection, food industry, bioengineering and so on.

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