Close planting and cultivation of walnut trees is a cultivation mode adopted by walnut gardens in recent years. It is a topic that new development households are more concerned about. The tree culture of the densely planted walnut garden is now described as follows:
A tree structure of densely planted walnut garden
The walnut garden adopting the dense planting mode mainly adopts a single-layer high position happy shape. Its tree structure is: trunk 0.6 meters high, the base of 3 to 4 main branches adjacent to each other arranged every 20 to 30 centimeters, a main branch, arranged spirally in the center stem, the whole tree 6 to 8 main branches Each branch 8 to 10 branches. From the top of the last main branch to fall happy, the center dry height 1.5 to 1.8 meters. The main branch has a base angle of 75 degrees and a length of about 2 meters. The tree height is about 2.5 meters.
Second, the dense tree planting walnut tree culture
In the first year: After the seedlings are planted, the buds are carved from 60 cm from the ground. The top 10 cm is not carved. In late August, the main branch was selected as a well-grown and robust new shoot evenly distributed around the canopy. The opening angle of the branch was about 75 degrees. Except for the central stem extension branch, the other branches were fully pulled, and the main branch could be cultivated in that year. ~3. The main branches of the winter are not cut, and all branches are coated with polyvinyl alcohol. To the coldest time in late December, cut the center extension stems to 80-90 cm.
The second year: Before sprouting in spring, from 20 to 30 centimeters from the base of the main branch, one bud is engraved every 20 to 30 centimeters, and about 1/3 of the main branch is not engraved. For shoots that germinate on the back, when the length reaches 30 to 40 centimeters, 10 to 15 centimeters of topping are left to induce short shoots, and the resulting branches are cultured. The results can be obtained in the second year. The new shoots on both sides do not pick up the hearts of the middle-aged people, and they are busy topping their hearts. Each branch is cultivated into 8 to 10 branches. In the middle and late August, the main branch was pulled open to about 75 degrees, and the number of main branches reached 4 to 5. In the coldest part of late December, the center will be extended and the branch will be cut out by 70 to 80 cm. From the bottom to the top, every 20 to 30 centimeters will be inserted to empty one bud.
The third year: Before sprouting in spring, continue to bud on the main branch and cultivate branch groups. On the back of the germination of the new shoots, when the length reaches 30 to 40 cm, leave 10 to 15 cm topping. In the middle and late August, the main branch was pulled to an angle of about 75 degrees, and the main branch reached 6 to 8. The tree shape was basically formed. The center stretches and prolongs the branches and puts them slowly, causing short branches and flowering results.
Third, the pruning method used in production
1. Short cuts. Cut off the annual branches and cut off part of the annual branches. Short cuts are commonly used for the cultivation of stems and branches, trimming of ready branches, etc. Cut the mouth from the buds 2 to 3 centimeters short to prevent the buds from being smoked. Short cut pruning is mainly used for the pruning of prolonged shoots and small main shoots of insufficient length at the sapling shaping stage. For the central dry extension branch, usually about 40 cm, in the full shoots in the short cut. For small main shoots less than 60 cm, the 1-2 buds at the base are generally kept short and heavy. Short cuts are rarely made in the adult results tree.
2. Thinning. The entire shoot was completely removed at the place of the shoot. Thinning is commonly used for the treatment of dense branches and dense branches, and most of them are used for trees in the result period. It is mainly to eliminate stubborn branches that grow on the back, result in too weak and weak branches, branches and branches, etc.
3. Retraction. Cut off branches on perennial branches. The retraction is mostly used for the rejuvenation of the central stem and the weakening main branch. Closely planted and cultivated walnut trees, especially early walnuts, were the main branches and the result was 3 to 4 years old. The mother branches were basically weak and needed to be renewed. When the branches are retracted, the base remains about 10 cm short, in order to promote a strong renewed branch.
4. Slow release. For some of the resulting mother branches, the pruning method was left intact. Because late-fruiting walnuts are the result of flowering of the top buds, early solid walnuts are the result of flowering more than 3 buds at the base, but the top buds produce the best results, so slow-relief is the method used for trimming walnut trees. All year-end results of all hoped-results mothers generally do not move the scissors, pruning is performed slowly, and avoid short cuts. Short cuts will result in late-major walnuts not producing fruit.
Four, winter pruning of walnut trees
There are four main tasks for the winter pruning of walnut trees: First, the structure of the tree is adjusted so that the large branches are evenly distributed, the site is occupied, the skeleton is firm, and the whole is airy and translucent. On this basis, the smaller the number of branches, the better. Excessive branches must be removed decisively to achieve a reasonable structure. The second is to balance the tree potential, so that the main branch growth potential balance. The method of balancing the tree-trend is "weakness remains high and potential strength stays low", that is, the main branch that grows weakly raises the branch angle, changes the upper branch and takes the lead, the main branch that grows strong forces down the branch angle, and uses the oblique branch. take the lead. The third is to adjust the load. According to the strong selection of branches to retain the results of the mother branches, branches of the mother to stay more than the results of the results, can leave the results of the mother of the weak results of the mother branch; branches of the branches should be weak to leave the results of the mother, leaving no results. The fourth is the timely updating of the main branch. The result of the early walnut production is 3 to 5 years and the result of the late walnut production is 4 to 6 years. As a result of the pumping, the mother branch becomes very thin due to too many branches and grades, and the result is extremely low. Therefore, at this time, it is necessary to decisively carry out the rejuvenation of the main branch by retaining 5 to 10 cm of retraction at the base.
Fifth, pay attention to avoid the bleeding period pruning
The walnut tree has the phenomenon of injury. In a certain period of time, the xylem or phloem of the branch is damaged. In the damaged place or in the passage leading to the xylem (such as the leaf mark after the leaves fall off), it will continue one after another. Outflow of sap. Injuries have two peak periods in one year. First, after falling into the winter, as the temperature decreases, the flow of injury increases, and when the cold reaches the coldest, the sap is frozen and the flow of injury is not severe after the branches are cut. Only in the daytime before and after noon there is a bad flow at high temperatures, but there will be a lot of wounds after the weather turns warm. There is basically no bleeding before sprouting. Second, after sprouting, with the growth of new shoots, the wound flow began to increase, and gradually decreased after flowering. When the fruit matured, the wound flow ended. The wound flow contains a lot of mineral nutrients and organic nutrients, and a lot of injury flow will waste tree nutrients and weaken the tree potential. Therefore, in the production, pruning should choose the appropriate period without injury. Generally, pruning of large branches after harvesting of the fruit in the fall and adjusting the skeleton of the tree are performed; pruning of the branchlets in the spring before budding is basically completed after the winter season to adjust the tree load.
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