The survival rate of fruit trees planted in spring is low, and it is easy to cause stuffy buds. The main reason is that in addition to the improper quality and management of seedlings, the main reason is that the northern spring has little drought, heavy sand, and pests. In order to improve the survival rate of fruit trees, after many years of exploration and summary, a set of fruit tree step-by-step transplantation cultivation techniques was explored, effectively avoiding the peak of spring pests (mainly black cashew beetle and weevils) and solving the problem of spring winds. The main techniques are as follows: sand blowing, drought and less rain are not easy to survive. 1. First transplant The fruit trees to be planted will be planted for the first time after soil thawing in late March. When planting, choose a lee place. 1.1 After the thawing of soil for seedbeds, according to different planting tree species and different seedling size, the leeward sunny place in the hospital digs the seedbed with a depth of 40-50 cm, a width of 1.2-1.5 m, and the number of long seedlings. The seedbed is required to be flat to facilitate watering. 1.2 seedlings to choose to choose seedlings in more than 1 cm in diameter, branches grow robust, full buds; roots developed, complete, fibrous roots, no pests and seedlings. 1.3 Soil soiled bags are prepared with vegetable garden soil, decomposed organic fertilizer, hill slope soil, and multiple compound fertilizers in a ratio of 70:15:13:2 in proportion to the nutrient soil, which is fully mixed and bagged. Nutrition bags are best used in breathable woven bags, fertilizer bags, rice bags (farmers commonly known as snake skin bags), etc., diameter can be used in more than 30 cm, each bag is 40 to 50 cm in height, depending on the size of seedlings . Bag selection should be moderate, too small to grow roots of seedlings, and inconvenient transportation when transplanted too large. Each bag can be separated from the middle, divided into two. 1.4 When the planted nutritious soil is loaded into 1/3 of the nutrition bag, the seedlings will be placed in it, pay attention to the roots to stretch, then fill in the roots of the roots, and compact the soil, and then turn the nutrition bags that hold the seedlings in order. Placed in a well-prepared seedbed and squeezed tightly. Between the bag and the gap between the bag filled with fine soil or fine sand, soil around the seedlings, then pouring enough water. 1.5 Tending and management After the planting, in the full shoots between 60 and 80 cm, the seedlings shall be dried, and after pouring, they shall be poured with water. In order to promote the growth of seedlings, it is best to make a plastic arch cover, increase the temperature inside the shed, promote growth, increase the amount of seedling growth, and timely watering, prevent drought, timely weeding, keep the ground clean, prevent weeds and seedlings from competing for water Fertilizer. When the buds germinate, the shoot buds within 20 cm of the upper part of the trunk remain, and all the rest are removed. After spraying, the leaves are sprayed with pests to control pests and diseases, which can spray 0.3% to 0.5% of urea and 300 times of aureus. Amino acid compound fertilizer, promote its growth. After the pests peaked in the spring, they were transplanted. 2. Second transplant 2.1 Site preparation Before the seedlings are transplanted, the plots to be planted trees are to be sited, and trenches or cave-like site preparations are carried out according to the planned spacing of plots. The trench-like site preparation is dug to a depth of 80 cm and a width of 80 to 100 cm. The ditch, when digging ditch will be the topsoil and heart and soil were placed on both sides of the ditch; hole-like site preparation dug length, width, depth of each 100 cm pit. Combined with base fertilizer, the topsoil is mixed with the organic fertilizer after being thoroughly mixed and then backfilled into the bottom of the ditch. In conditional conditions, some weeds or crop stalks can be placed at the bottom to increase water retention. 2.2 Planting period In early June, when the peaks of pests such as elephant armor and beetle were damaged, the spring drought basically ended and the plant was planted before the rainy season. At this time the seedlings in the nutrition bag have grown a lot of new roots. 2.3 Pre-planting treatment The nutrition bag seedlings were poured into the ground one day before planting, and then transplanted to the ground for transplanting. Pay attention to the movement with the plant. 2.4 Planting After the nutrition bagged seedlings are carefully placed into the planting ditch (hole), use a sharp device to draw the nutrition bag from several directions in a few holes, bury it firmly and pour firmly, and pour enough water. Make a grooved (potted) tree plate with a high outer height and low profile, and then cover with a black plastic film to suppress weed growth. 3. Post-planting management 3.1 Timely watering and timely draining After the second transplant, the nutrition bag was cut into several holes, but it was still wrapped in the roots of the big tree and had a certain degree of water retention. Therefore, it increased the resistance to drought and watering interval. It is longer than ordinary planting methods. After the transplant, the first watering must be poured thoroughly, and the second watering is 7-10 days depending on the weather conditions. After the arrival of the rainy season, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the newly planted fruit trees cannot accumulate water, and it is necessary to discharge accumulated water in a timely manner so as to prevent plant death caused by earthworms. 3.2 Reasonable fertilization Although a large amount of base fertilizer has been applied during planting, within 30 days after transplanting, nutrient growth depends on the tree itself, so it is necessary to fertilize it timely. Mainly spraying foliar fertilizers, combined with pest control, spraying 0.3% to 0.5% urea and 300 times odd-core amino acid compound fertilizer every 10 to 15 days to promote the lignification of seedling shoots, starting from late August. 300 times more potassium dihydrogen phosphate sprayed 3 to 4 times. 3.3 Comprehensive prevention and control of pests and diseases Pesticides mainly use diflubenzuron III 1500-2000 times liquid, imidacloprid 1500 times liquid and polyester pesticides; the main use of thiophanate-methyl to prevent diseases is 1200-1500 times, 50% retort. Special 800 ~ 1000 times liquid. 3.4 The trunk is coated with white and autumn leaves. The whitening agent formulated with water, quicklime, sulfur, and salt is painted white. The whitening of the trunk can not only prevent the freezing damage caused by the severe temperature changes in winter and spring, but also eliminate the overwintering eggs on the trunk. The germs can also prevent the hare from biting the trunk. (Author: Liu Jinzhu Lu Yunkui Unit: Qian'an City, Hebei Province Forestry Bureau)
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