Summer shade nets efficient cultivation techniques of cress

It is located in the watercress base in Houhong Village, Wanshi Town, Yixing City, Jiangsu Province. It has an area of ​​1,800 acres of cress cultivation, including a central planting area of ​​1,000 acres and an annual turnover of more than 28.5 million yuan. Summer shading net cress generally sorts in batches from late June to late August, harvesting from the end of July to the end of October. The mono-cropping period is 40 to 50 days, and the yield per mu is 1900 to 2200 kg. The per mu output value is about 7,600 yuan. To calculate the annual planting rate of 3%, the profit per mu exceeds RMB 10,000.
First, the choice of facilities shade sheds can use flat or steel greenhouses. Flat construction methods: Use 1.8-2.2 meters long and 10 cm long and 10 cm long cement columns as pillars. When constructing, pillars are buried 60 centimeters deep, with a vertical spacing of 3 meters and a horizontal spacing of 4 meters. The cement pillars around the field shall be fixed with a ground anchor. The top is connected to a mesh of 3 mm diameter galvanized iron wire, and the top of the cement column is wrapped with rags or waste plastics. The whole field includes plastic shade nets covering 70%~80% of the shading rate on the sides. Steel tube sheds are constructed with standardized galvanized steel tubes spanning 6 meters or 8 meters, and the length of the greenhouse is determined by the field blocks. Sunshade nets can be covered by single buildings, and can also be covered by double or triple buildings. For example, before the beginning of autumn in August, sowing, but also set up a small arch shed on the surface, the use of double-shade net cover, in order to further reduce the surface temperature, and promote the growth of cress.
Second, cultivation management technology
1. For germination, select high-temperature resistant varieties and use local Yixing Yuanye celery. Watercress germinates with stems and reproduces vegetatively. Germination usually takes place about 1 week before planting. Firstly, we select the stems that are harvested in the field and select the stems one by one. We select stems with a diameter of 0.8-1.0 cm and a length of about 1 meter. The thickness is the same from the top to the bottom, and there are close internodes, and there are many axillary buds, and there are no pests and stems. Neatly arrange the species, remove the debris, cut off the top part, and tie it into a round bale with a diameter of 20 cm. Each bundle is tied with 2 to 3 ropes, and then the cool air is selected for stacking. Put a small amount of dry firewood on the ground before stacking, and then stack the seed bundles in layers of 5 to 6 horizontally and vertically on top of each other. Keep a distance of about 5 cm between the bales to allow air to flow. The height of the seed pile is preferably 1 to 1.5 meters. After stacking, the straw was moisturized around and above the seed piles, and the cover was removed at night for ventilation. Every day, cover the night, at 8 o'clock in the morning and at 4 to 5 o'clock in the afternoon, use a cool water to soak the seed heaps one time. Turn it on every two days. Turn the heap and change the bale position so that the germination is consistent. When the axillary buds begin to germinate, they can be seeded when short roots are produced.
2. Prepare 3,000 to 5,000 kilograms of high-quality organic fertilizer per acre before planting and sowing, and fully plow and level the soil so that the height difference between the fields does not exceed 5 cm. Then fill the water layer, according to the width of 2 to 4 meters wide, 30 cm wide and 20 cm deep sowing seedlings; fields around the ditch, the longer the field but also every 15 to 20 meters to open the ditch. When sowing is required, there is water in the ditch, and the surface is fully moistened.
3. The sowing will prompt the buds of the buds to be cut into 30 cm long. The seedlings should be selected on a cloudy or sunny afternoon after the sun weakens to prevent the sun from sprouting. When the seeds are planted, the stem and the middle section will be used separately to facilitate the emergence of uniform and neat seedlings. The method of row discharge is to use a method of uniform discharge from one end to the other, with a stem spacing of about 3 centimeters. It is also possible to use the same side of the row with the same density (ie, the base of the stem is facing outwards, making a circle around it). The method of spraying in Tanaka is generally about 1,000 kilograms per acre. When the seeds are planted, they are lined up to flatten the footprint ponds and try to flatten and evenly distribute them so that the seedlings can fully touch the ground in order to take root. In order to facilitate the operation, the water layer should be filled during seeding and the water should be drained after the seeds are planted to maintain the majority of the ditch water in the gutters. The clams should be fully moistened without accumulation of water, so as to avoid the high temperature causing the water temperature to rise and burn the sprouts. After the seeding, the shading net shading of 70% to 80% shading rate should be used in time.
4. The homogenizer may cause uneven emergence due to various reasons. Due to the short growth period of summer cress, the density will directly affect the yield and quality. If there is uneven density of the plants, the seedlings should be mixed with weeds before the 5th leaf stage of the plants to make 280 seedlings per square meter.
5. Water slurry management has high temperatures in summer, and the resistance of the watercress seedlings to pathogenic bacteria or other pollutants is poor. It is particularly required that the irrigation water is clean and free of pollution. It is best to open a machine well in the Tianbian area to pump water from wells to ensure water quality. , but also can properly reduce the field temperature. Seedlings within one week before germination and emergence, to maintain moist noodles, but do not leave water; in case of heavy rain should promptly grab water to prevent the mother stem floating or rot. About 10 days after the seedlings are planted, when most of the young shoots of the axillary buds sprouted and the new seedlings were placed on the leaves, they were put on the field for 1 to 2 days until the silk surface cracked to promote rooting. After the field is kept in the ditch, 3 to 5 cm of shallow water layer will be kept. If the weather is hot, the water management should be done daily.
6. The growth period of summer cress in fertilizers is short. On the basis of applying basic fertilizer, top dressing is usually done twice. That is, about 15 days after seeding, 20 kg of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer is applied per acre. After about 15 days of top dressing, 30 kg of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer is applied per acre. After each fertilization, the plants should be cleaned with a broom so as not to cause fertilizer damage from the fertilizer that has fallen on the leaves.
7. Diseases and insect pests are protected by shade nets, and fewer pests and diseases occur. Occasionally Spodoptera litura is harmed. The use of frequency-vibrancy insecticidal lamps, sweet and sour liquids, sex attractants and other physical or biological methods should be given priority for prevention and control. Chemical control should be as soon as possible, and larvae should be used before the 3rd Guardian 1500 times, 1500 times liquid Huajing No. 2, 1500 times, 10% chlorfenapyr (divided) 2000 times liquid alternately for prevention and treatment.
3. When the harvested cress is up to 25 cm or more, it is harvested in batches according to market demand. The growth period should be controlled between 40 and 45 days. If it is too long, the celery can be aged. Harvesting should be carried out before dew at 10 o'clock every morning. If it is harvested later than this period, water should be sprayed on the celery leaves to prevent harvesting and celery from being damaged. When harvesting, use a hoe to harvest.

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