In August and early September of this year, the cotton fields in the Yellow River Basin suffered from the depletion of bolls and premature aging after several consecutive rains, which resulted in a reduction in output and the farmers suffered considerable economic losses.
Why does cotton rotten bell? How to prevent? We must start with the growth characteristics of cotton.
In the middle and lower part of the cotton plant, the volt and bells in front of the plant generally take 48 days from flowering to boll opening, so there is a saying that "flowers will be spent 48 days." Cotton bolls have a strong resistance during the growth period, and no insect damage will not cause bad bells. In the mature period, after 40 days of growth, the cotton bolls cease to grow, and the shell needs to be dehydrated, dried and cracked. If the rainwater is exposed to high temperature and humidity during this period, the bolls that ceased to grow have no resistance, and the germs will invade the shell. Cause bad bells. If the climate in Xinjiang is dry and there is little rain, there will be high temperatures without high humidity, and cotton bolls will not be bad. In the inland cotton area, if there is another rainy season in October, there will be high humidity and no heat, and cotton bolls will not be bad. Therefore, in north and south China's cotton-growing areas, do not want to reduce the number of bells, so that the boll mature period to avoid late August to early September is likely to trigger the season of rotten bell, is the best way to prevent.
When it comes to front bells, in the past when there was no film of cotton, there were few bells in the cotton fields in the Yellow River Basin. There was only one or two cottons, so there would not be many bells. Since the promotion of mulch cotton, cotton seedlings have been made early, the growth period is 10-15 days earlier, and up to seven or eight bells are available. Therefore, there are more rotten bells and a larger reduction in output. There are more bells in front of the bell, and the bell in the middle will be less. Because the bell will ring early, the nutrient made in the middle leaves will first supply the growth of the bell, which will cause the nutrient supply in the middle of flowering and pollination to fall off. It is not worth the candle that is in the lower part of the cotton boll. In order to solve this problem, Guoxin Science and Technology Park conducted a comparative experiment. In the same land with good water and fertilizer conditions, Xinyang No. 4 was planted on April 20, 2007, and the mu density was 2000 strains, 2,500 strains, and 3,500 strains, respectively. The 2,000 plantation plots adopted the simplified pruning method. On June 25, all vegetative branches and the lower two fruit branches were destroyed. On July 5, all the opened flowers and the sorted young bells were all removed, making the lower leaves more central. Volt provides nutrition. The average number of rotten bells per plant was 0.7, and the actual harvest was 685 catties, while the number of rotten bells in the other two plots that did not go to the two fruit branches and did not go to the lower bell was more than three. The output was 632 pounds and 606 respectively. jin. Therefore, appropriate sparse planting, with no or less bells, is the most active and simple way to prevent rotten bells, and less or no bells are needed to make the cotton plants more resistant to drought in the middle and early July. . However, if there are too many bells at the front, the â€œold manâ€ who is prone to premature aging will often grow into a â€œtwo-story buildingâ€ after a rainstorm.
There are other ways to prevent and treat bad bells, such as pushing and cultivating ridges, hitting the old leaves, spraying fungicide, and picking up the rotten bells to dry at the beginning. However, these methods are in the cotton field, impending rotten bells or rotten bells have already occurred. The passive methods adopted at the time are often not ideal, and they are not as effective as the early buds in early and late June or the early July and early morning bells.
Under normal circumstances, the number of rotten bells in the third fruit branch of the cotton plant is higher. Even if it is not rotten, it is due to insufficient illumination near the ground. The hot moisture vapor transpires and the bolling is not good, resulting in poor quality "root flower" and "stuck". Flower petals." So take the initiative to remove the two fruit branches in the lower part of the cotton plant. After the end of August, the growth of high-yield cotton fields should be: patchwork, distinct, high-pitched, bell-free, full-backed, and peach-covered.
The reasons for premature aging of cotton fields in 2009 are as follows: First, the old cotton fields that have been plucked for many years are not treated with organic fertilizer or fertilizer; the second is the lack of potassium in cotton fields; the third is the early maturing varieties; the fourth is the drought in cotton fields in July. Watering, the cotton plant grows into a "small old man" with too many bells in front of the plant; Fifth, the soil in the cotton field is a dry, sandy loam soil; sixth, early dehydration of the early-yielding cotton fields in the middle and late stages; and seven, a late rainy season in the cotton fields. Root hypoxia and premature aging. Accordingly, the following measures should be taken to prevent premature aging: First, farmers in many places should use crop rotation to make cotton; Second, apply organic manure such as manure and cake fertilizer to the old cotton fields as base fertilizer; Third, select middle-early-maturing varieties; Fourth, mid-July and mid-July When there is a severe drought, we must leave less or not to reserve the bell, to avoid the formation of premature aging of cotton plants due to premature â€œtowing childrenâ€; Fifth, to re-apply base fertilizer to the dry and thin sandy cotton fields, and apply top dressing multiple times. Sowing or not to cover the film; six is â€‹â€‹early on early broadcast cotton fields in time to top-dressing in August; seven is the latter part of the growth of cotton fields if the rain to drain in time.
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